English for Everyone

<b>English for Everyone</b>
Stephen Lau's website to help you get the wisdom to live as if everything is a miracle.

Friday, May 31, 2019

Confusing Vocabulary


Writing is made up of words. The first requirement of writing English is to learn some English words every day to build up your vocabulary -- you may have to know at least a few thousand words before you can write effectively.

Learning vocabulary may look daunting to you (you may not know the word daunting, but most probably you can still guess that it means something like "difficult"; that is how you learn a new work  by relating it to the context in a sentence), but you have to learn it cumulatively, that is, learning a few words every day. 

Advance / Advancement

Advance, as a verb, means going forward or making progress; advancement means promotion.

e.g. With the advance of winter, days are growing shorter.

e.g. To seek advancement in your career, you need to work extra hard or get a higher qualification.

Observable / Observant

Observable: can be seen or noticed; observant: quick to pay attention.

e.g. The solution to the problem is observable to many scientists.

e.g. To be a good scientist, you must be observant of all the relevant details and data.

Noteworthy / Noticeable

Noteworthy means deserving attention; noticeable means easily seen.

e.g. The candidate's accomplishments are noteworthy.

e.g. The flaws in the Governor's character are easily noticeable to the public.

Pretense Pretension

Pretense is to make believe; pretension is a claim

e.g. She makes no pretense to like her mother-in-law. (She does not pretend that she likess her mother-in-law)

e.g. He made no pretension to that award. (He never claimed that he received that award)

All / All of

All is used for amount, quantity, distance, and length of time.

e.g. all the money, all the way, all day, all night,

All of is used when a simple pronoun follows.

e.g. all of it, all of you, all of us.

All and all of may be used when it refers to number.

e.g. All or all of the employees are satisfied with the new policy.

e.g. All or all of the children in the family have gone to college.

Ingenious
 / Ingenuous

Ingenious is clever; ingenuous is natural, free from deceit.

e.g. I must say that was an ingenious way to fund the project.

e.g. The Mayor's response to the questions from the reporter was sincere and ingenuous.

Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Choice of Words


Choosing the Right Words

Effective writing is about choosing the right words and using them correctly.

Flair and Flare


e.g. You always have a flair for fashion. (natural talent)


e.g. The fireworks exploded in a flare. (bright light)


Censor and Censure


e.g. We had to censor this film before letting the public view it. (edit or remove anything objectionable)


e.g. We had to censure the producer for making this controversial film. (condemn)


Exhausting and Exhaustive


Exhausting means “tiring out”; exhaustive means “complete or thorough.”


e.g. This work is too exhausting for me.


e.g. Exhaustive research on cancer cure has been conducted for decades.


Different from and Different than


e.g. The movie was different from the book.


e.g. The movie was different than I had expected. (than a subordinating conjunction)


Grisly and Grizzly


e.g. A grisly crime was committed in this quiet neighborhood. (terrifying)


e.g. I saw a grizzly bear at our backyard. (hairy)


Eminent and Imminent


e.g. My daughter is an eminent attorney. (prominent; well known)


e.g. A storm was imminent. (coming soon)


Beside and Besides


e.g. He was sitting beside me. (next to)


e.g. Besides cycling, he was interested in swimming. (in addition to; apart from)

   

Complement and Compliment


e.g. What a wonderful dessert to complement the meal! (complete)


e.g. I wish to compliment you on your success.(praise)


Any way and Anyway


e.g. I cannot think of any way to do this. (any method)


e.g. I didn’t like it, but I did it anyway. (in any case; just the same)


Bad and Badly


Bad is always an adjectivebadly is always an adverb:


e.g. Don’t feel bad about getting a “C” in your English. (NOT badly: a bad feeling)


e.g. I performed badly in the piano competition. (NOT bad: performed badly or poorly)


e.g. The food looked bad to me. (NOT badlybad or rotten food)


e.g. He coughed badly. (NOT bad: coughed seriously)



Stephen Lau

Copyright© by Stephen Lau


Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Misuse of the Semi-Colon


The Semicolon is one of the punctuation marks frequently misused in writing.

A semicolon is used between a dependent clause and an independent clause.

e.g. Although he was very tired; he did not want to go to bed. (incorrect)

e.g. Although he was very tiredhe did not want to got to bed. (a comma should be used instead)

A semicolon is used to introduce a list.

e.g. The box was filled with everything but booksclothing, snacks, hammers and tools. (incorrect)

e.g. The box was filled with everything but booksclothing, snacks, hammers and tools. (a colon should be used instead)

A semicolon is not used between an introductory phrase and the rest of the sentence.

e.g. Her hands tremblingshe managed to pour the toxic liquid into the tube. (incorrect)

e.g. Her hands tremblingshe managed to pour the toxic liquid into the tube (a comma should be used instead)

Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau

Monday, May 27, 2019

Correct Use of Words



Effective writing means you use the language appropriately.

Indoor and Indoors: The former is an adjective, while the latter is an adverb. 

e.g. Bowling is an indoor sport.
e.g. It's raining; let's go indoors

Pretense and PretensionPretense (Br. English "pretence") is make-belief; pretension is a claim.

e.g. She made a pretense to faint in front of the audience.
e.g. Your pretension to the money is groundless.

Welcome and Welcomed: The former is an adjective, while the latter is a  participle.

e.g. You are most welcome (i.e. you are free) to take whatever you need..
e.g. The Queen was welcomed by the President of the United States

Infer and ImplyInfer means draw a conclusion from; imply means to suggest.

e.g. I can infer from what you said that you don't like him.
e.g. Your comments imply that she was not speaking the truth.

Await and WaitAwait must have an object (meaning be in store for); wait for a person or a thing.

e.g. A big fortune awaits the person with the winning lottery ticket.
e.g. I will wait for my wife here.

Forbidding and ForebodingForbidding means discouraging; foreboding means suggesting in advance.

e.g. The embassy with its heavy iron gates has a forbidding appearance.
e.g. Look at the dark clouds and high winds foreboding an imminent storm.

Beside and BesidesBeside means next to; besides means in addition to.

e.g. He was sitting beside the President.
e.g. Besides the difficulties, you must also consider the costs of these projects.

Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Learn Some American Idioms

Act one’s age: behave maturely
e.g. Stop behaving like a teenager! Act your age.

Call someone on the carpet: scold or reprimand
e.g. If you late for work one more time, the manager will call you on the carpet.

Full of crap: talking nonsense all the time
e.g. I don’t like your friend; he’s full of crap.

Lead someone astray: cause someone to do something wrong or illegal
e.g. If you are always in the company of lawbreakers, you  may be easily be led astray.

Pass the hat: collect money for
e.g. He is always passing the hat for something.

No can do: impossible
e.g. He asked me for more money. I told him no can do.

Bag your face: shut up!
e.g. You and your loud mouth! Go and bag your face!

One’s days are numbered: about to die or to be dismissed
e.g. The manager doesn’t like her.  I would say her days are numbered.

Occur to someone: come to mind
e.g. It never occurred to me that I would fail my driving test.

Live beyond one’s means: spend more than one can earn
e.g. You are in debt because you are living beyond your means.

Pain in the neck: annoyance
e.g. You are pain in the neck, always complaining about this and that.

Over the hump: overcome the most difficult part
e.g. We are now over the hump; the rest may not be that difficult.

Pay the piper: receive the punishment due
e.g. You just can’t keep on spending without paying the piper.

Ball of fire: an energetic and enthusiastic person
e.g. We all want his presence; he is a ball of fire.

Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau

Better English for You

Friday, May 24, 2019

Avoid These Sentence Errors

Double Negatives

e.g. I didn’t see nobody. (incorrect)

I didn’t see anybody. (correct)

e.g. We are not going nowhere. (incorrect)

We are not going anywhere. (correct).

e.g. There isn't no money left. (incorrect)

There isn't any money left. (correct)

Omission of Key Verbs

e.g. The room was cleaned, and the curtains washed. (incorrect)

The room was cleaned, and the curtains were washed. (correct)

e.g. I never have, and never will do such a thing. (incorrect)

e.g. I never have done, and never will do such a thing. (correct)

Omission of Words in Comparison

e.g. His performance was better. (incorrect)

His performance was better than that (i.e. the performance) of the other candidates. (correct)

e.g. Your hands are bigger than any man that I know of. (incorrect)

e.g. You hands are bigger than those (i.e. the hands) of any man that I know of. (correct)
               
Dangling Participles

e.g. Walking down the street, the City Hall could be seen. (incorrect)

Walking down the street, we could see the City Hall. (correct)

e.g. By exercising every day, your health will improve. (incorrect)

By exercising every day, you will improve your health. (correct)

Misuse of Dependent Clauses

e.g. Because he had no money was the reason he stayed at home. (incorrect)

He stayed at home because he had no money. (correct)

Because he had no money, he stayed at home. (correct)

Having no money was the reason he stayed at home. (correct)

Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau
  

Thursday, May 23, 2019

More Confusing Words

Effective writing requires the correct use of words,  which sometimes may be confusing to writers. 

Sensual / Sensuous

Sensual: related to the body; sensuous: related to the five senses.

e.g. It is difficult to be spiritual when one focuses too much on sensual pleasures.

e.g. The painter is able to provide some sensuous images in his painting.

Common / Commonplace

Common: shared or used by many; commonplace: ordinary, not unusual.

e.g. English is a common language used in Europe.

e.g. Nowadays, carrying a gun is commonplace.

Habitable / Habitual

Right / Rightly

Right: immediately; rightly: justly, correctly.

e.g. Do it right now.

e.g. Do it right away.

e.g. I rightly canceled the trip.

e.g. We refused the offer, and rightly so.

Defer / Infer

Defer: give way or yield to; infer: conclude.

e.g. He is a good kid: he always defers to his parents' wishes.

e.g. We can infer from your statement that you don't like this policy.

Mediate / Meditate

Mediate means to act as a peacemaker; meditate means to think deeply.

e.g. The Secretary of State is trying to mediate between the two warring nations.

e.g. He meditated revenge after he was insulted by his coworkers.

Potent / Potential

Potent: strong, powerful; potential: power that could be, but is not yet.

e.g. He is a potent politician.

e.g. He has great potential in American politics.

Compare to / Compare with

Compare to: state a resemblance to; compare with: put side by side to find out the similarities and differences.

e.g. The poet compares living in this modern world to riding on a bullet train.

e.g. If you compare Plan A with Plan B, you will know that Plan B is much better than Plan A. 

Reverend / Reverent

Reverend: worthy of respect; reverent: showing respect.

e.g. Have you met the Rev. Mr. Johnson?

e.g. He gave a reverent speech on drug addiction.

In regard to / As regards

Both mean with reference to.

e.g. As regards your performance, I think you did a good job (no “to”).

e.g. She is very generous in regard to charity donation.


Stephen Lau
Copyright© by Stephen Lau