Learn the present perfect tense: it indicates an action in the past, but with a present effect.
Compare the following sentences:
e.g. I reported to the police. (past tense)
e.g. "Why don't you call the police?" "I have reported to the police."(present perfect tense)
In the first example, the action took place in the past, e.g. "yesterday."
In the second example, the action also took place in the past, but the past action has a present "implication" or "effect"; that is, "I don't have to report to the police NOW, because I already REPORTED yesterday. So the present perfect tense is: past action + present effect.
e.g. The patient has died.(it's TOO LATE to call the doctor)
e.g. He has messed up our plans. (that is why everything is a mess NOW)
e.g. I have watched that movie. (I don't want to see it AGAIN)
e.g. The crime rate has gone up in Chicago. (the crime rate is STILL GOING UP)
Compare the following:
e.g. Many people die from cancer. (present tense, indicating a FACT)
e.g. He messes up our plans. (i.e. he is a trouble maker all the time)
e.g. My dog watches the door at night. (it stays close to the door every night)
e.g. Food prices go up with inflation. (food prices and inflation go hand in hand)
Next time, I'll talk about past tense and past perfect tense.
To learn more about tenses, read my book Effective Writing Made Simple.
Friday, March 14, 2014
Tenses play a pivotal role in effective writing: they highlight the time sequence of events. In other languages, for example, the Chinese language, there are no tenses; time sequence is indicated simply by using adverbs (words that describe or modify the verbs in sentences), such as "today", "tomorrow", "now" , "last week" , "soon" and "later."
First of all, learn the present tense and the present continuous tense.
Use the present tense to indicate an action that is factual or habitual. Examples of the present tense are as follows:
- I like hamburgers. (factual)
- He eats like a pig. (habitual)
- She enjoys ballet. (habitual)
- Obama is the President of the United States. (factual)
- They go to that church every Sunday.(habitual)
- We love Italian food. (habitual)
- He is eating like a pig. (now he is eating like a pig, although this may not be his habit of eating)
- She is enjoying the ballet; don't disturb her! (she is paying all her attention to the ballet at this moment)
- They are going to that church right now. (they are ready to go now, or they are already on their way to that church)
We shall leave when we are ready. (the action is in the future)
We are leaving soon. (the action is also in the future, but the present continuous indicates "very soon")
She plays the piano. (she is a pianist, or she can play the piano)
She is playing the piano (she is at the piano right now)
To learn how to write better, read my book Effective Writing Made Simple.
To learn about tenses, come back for more.